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The protein " Royalisin " found in royal jelly has potent in vitro antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, but not against gram-negative bacteria. Hydroxydecanoic acid has in vitro bacteriostatic activity against Streptococcus aureus and Escherichia coli . These antibacterial components are believed to modestly enhance host defenses in honeybees. Additive or synergistic effects have been demonstrated in vitro with starch and honey.