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As a result of GI enzymatic hydrolysis, peptides derived from royal jelly demonstrated angiotensin 1–converting enzyme inhibitory activity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Other studies suggest trans-2-octenoic acid and hydroxydecanoic acid may account for the antihypertensive activity, but different fractions exert lesser or greater effects on duration of action. Royal jelly also was associated with a protective action and therapeutic activity in adrenaline-induced arrhythmia; however, no effect on heart rate has been observed.